The Agricutulre in egypt
Update:2013-01-10 19:55:24 From:：本站 Editer:admin
Revitalization of agriculture, the progressive realization of the self-sufficiency of grain and other agricultural products, and the strategic objectives of the Government of Egypt for many years. As early as in the 1980s, the Egyptian Ministry of Agriculture on the preparation of the 1982 to 1987 agricultural mechanization development plan. Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak said: "there is no food, no freedom. Because of the growing population, the fertile land available energy is becoming increasingly inadequate in order to solve the contradiction between population growth rate greater than the growth rate of energy, the Egyptian government will solve the contradiction between the way out into the desert improvement and agricultural mechanization. In the Fourth Five-Year Plan (1997-2002), the Egyptian government plans to develop agriculture, and actively promote the development of agricultural mechanization. The Egyptian government actively to the development of agricultural science and technology, including the technology of dry farming, drought-tolerant varieties of research, to promote agricultural development. Also introduced agricultural encourage policy, actively encouraging private enterprises to adopt water-saving technology development and utilization of the desert, the introduction of the research and promotion of agricultural machinery and high-tech, full of vitality of the Egyptian agriculture.
Egypt's agricultural policies are mainly the following aspects.
A large number of inputs for agriculture and agricultural machinery and subsidies
Egypt is a much less national agricultural production depends mainly on the government to support the development of policy. The Egyptian agriculture mainly family-run management of small and medium-sized farms, these farmers is a serious lack of funds, the loan is extremely difficult. Because most had no ability to repay them in urgent need of agricultural machinery was largely dependent on the country's agricultural inputs (most of the funding are unpaid or interest-free loans). In addition, the government also subsidies for many agricultural inputs, agricultural irrigation water free of charge system. Implement long-term low-interest loans to encourage land reclamation, expanding arable land, the purchase of the machinery of government to exploit it by providing water resources for their land, in particular the provisions of the newly reclaimed land exempt from land tax in 10 years, to encourage farmers to reclaim wasteland . The Egyptian government also strongly encouraged the farmers to buy small agricultural machinery and give loan subsidies. Government, through low-interest long-term loans and free training and other measures to support farmers to purchase and use machinery. Farmers to purchase agricultural machinery generally 90% of the loan, the annual interest rate is 6%, 5 to 10 years to pay off.
Vigorously to build agricultural stations. Cheap rent and free technical training for farmers on agricultural machinery
The Egyptian Ministry of Agriculture has established more than 100 agricultural stations nationwide, each station is equipped with a main work tool, responsible for more than 2000 hectares of land for farming task, and is responsible for the training. A variety of agricultural machinery to farmers or private farmers lease on the agricultural stations, the price is very low. Lease the entire process, the technical staff of the agricultural station also free to teach farmers to lease machinery operation using essentials and some mechanical maintenance technical requirements. Low rental fees, but also free to learn the use of agricultural machinery technology, the enthusiasm of the farmers renting agricultural machinery is very high, greatly promoted the conversion of the farmers from traditional agriculture to mechanization, modernization of agriculture.
Third, pay attention to rely on foreign investment and bilateral co-operation to promote the development of agricultural mechanization
Imperfect Egyptian agricultural infrastructure, not high degree of mechanization of agricultural production, the need to purchase a considerable number of various types of agricultural machinery, for this case, the Egyptian government vigorously the introduction of advanced agricultural machinery and technology. Such as rotating sprinkler technology, large-scale cotton picking machine imported by the United States; drip irrigation technology introduced by Israel; corn, tomato picking machine imported from Italy; the solid chemical aquasorb, solid-state chemical fertilizers agent introduced by Israel or the United States; various from abroad excellent plant varieties. Because of lack of domestic foreign exchange reserves and the lack of research funding, the Egypt of many research projects must rely on foreign joint investment and bilateral cooperation.
Since the 1980s, Egypt has been cooperation with the United States, Germany, Japan, United Kingdom, Hungary and other countries. In aid from the United States, Egypt early 1970s on the establishment of a Centre for Remote Sensing. The use of remote sensing technology since the establishment of the center, a survey of more than 40 projects of Egypt's natural resources, soil, environment and crops, to the Ministry of Agriculture to provide a wealth of valuable scientific data, and direct services for agricultural production.
Fourth, new graduates Mubarak plan
Taken by the Egyptian Agricultural Resettlement and Development is the new graduates Mubarak plan mode. The countries actively called on the graduates of the College of Agriculture to the first line of agricultural production, land distribution and agricultural machinery, the state care. Each of graduates entering the project will get 5 feddans (31.5 acres) of the total value of 58,000 Egyptian pounds (U.S. $ 1 = 3.4 Egyptian pounds) of land and set the value of the housing of 12,000 Egyptian pounds, after the start of the project years, the implementation of the project beginning in the years to repay the funds from housing investment, paid 70,000 Egyptian pounds of ground models and housing investment to get the ownership of land and housing in 30 years time, to become real estate owners. 300 graduates cooperatives, the state provided to cooperatives all kinds of farm machinery and irrigation equipment, per capita of about 5,000 Egyptian pounds. The family farm cooperatives for graduates to provide a variety of services: seed supply, maintenance of agricultural machinery, and product sales. Graduates land operation, the education sector will also provide them with a variety of short-term training opportunities, clubs, libraries, cultural centers and other cultural sector for various cooperatives established.
Beginning in the 1980s, over 84,000 hectares of land has more than 150,000 graduates of the school of the College of Agriculture and agricultural farming, allocated by the State. Graduates to the first line of production, not only the knowledge learned at school can be used directly on agricultural production and in the production of the first line of the promotion and dissemination of technology, to help to improve the overall quality of the farmers, creating knowledge, understand the technology, new generation of farmers.
Land reform to promote intensive and mechanized operations
Egypt per capita arable land area of approximately 0.78 acres, 99% of the country's population live in the Nile Valley and the Nile Delta, the vast majority of arable land in Egypt is concentrated here. Of this small-scale peasant against Egypt, in the 1970s, Egypt was the land reform, farmers with their own land, average each farmer has the 0.8 ~ 2hm2 arable land. In addition, the Egyptian government to encourage private investment in building a large farm in the desert. Government policy to develop a lot of preferential policies. This makes a lot of large-scale farm operations area used personnel rarely, is conducive to promoting agricultural intensification and mechanization of operations